Disability history lecture IX – Prof. Dr. Kerri Inglis

Maʻi hoʻokaʻawale ʻohana (the disease that separates family): Hansen’s disease in Hawaiʻi, 1866-1969

Prof. Dr. Kerri Inglis.

The lecture will take place on Thursday April 14th 2016 from 19h30 onwards in the Damian Centre, Sint-Antoniusberg 5 (Leuven, Belgium).

From 1866 to 1969, approximately 8,000 persons were quarantined or exiled to the Molokai leprosy settlement in the Hawaiian Islands; but their story, in their words, has seldom been told. Endeavoring to recover the patients’ voices in this significant moment in Hawaiian history, Kerri Inglis will present an examination of the many letters and articles that patients and their loved ones wrote to the Board of Health and Hawaiian language newspapers in the 19th century, as well as oral histories that have been collected in the 20th century.  Together they tell the story of a disease, a changing society’s reaction to that disease, and of the consequences of that experience for Hawai‘i and its people. From their writings we are privy to the most personal of moments – simple but profound experiences of living with the disease, being separated from loved ones, surviving and dying, in exile.

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Disability history lecture X – Dr. Sebastian Barsch

Traditions of „othering“ – teaching disability history

Dr. Sebastian Barsch

The lecture will take place on Wednesday 18 May 2016 from 16 until 18 pm in room 00.41 of the VHI-building (Vandenheuvelinstituut) in the Dekenstraat n°2 (Leuven, Belgium).

 

Societies both in in the past  and in the present were and are marked by diversity. Although diversity has always been a normal condition of human coexistence, the reception of diversity was often the starting point of exclusion. The presentation focuses on issues of diversity in the teaching of history by referring to the example of deaf culture as it was seen in the burgeoning field of special education in the 19th century. The characteristics of deaf culture’s contemporary historical consciousness are being summarized and linked to this group’s history. After that, a brief overview of how this topic could be of use for history education will be presented. Moreover, it will be shown that disability history in general can be a valuable subject in history lessons for societies facing diversity.

 

Disability History Lecture VIII – Piet Devos

The recumbent speaks: The disabled subject and literary creation (1900-1950)

Dr. Piet Devos

The lecture will take place on Wednesday 28 October 2015 from 16 until 18 pm in room 00.41 of the VHI-building (Vandenheuvelinstituut) in the Dekenstraat n°2 (Leuven, Belgium).

In a 1926 essay, Virginia Woolf argued that the ‘recumbent’ ill body should no longer be neglected in literature. According to Woolf, the articulation of illness would not only lead to the innovation of the traditional literary genres, it would also increase the collective awareness of the body’s vulnerability in a modern society obsessed with efficiency. While drawing on Woolf’s text as well as several other examples, I will discuss the emergence of the disabled subject in Modernist literature from the period 1900-1950. Just like Woolf, most authors to be analyzed – e.g. Joe Bousquet, Jacques Lusseyran and Pablo Palacio – were themselves all too familiar with sensory disabilities or chronic diseases. First of all I would like to suggest that, while writing from a disabled perspective, these authors opened up unexpected aesthetic horizons. That is due to the fact, as a (autobiographical) narrator or main character, the disabled subject required his/her own singular style and metaphorical structures as to articulate his/her ‘abnormal’ way of perceiving and being-in-the-world. Read from the viewpoint of the ‘normal’ common sense, such an aesthetics of disability was unsettling, sometimes even shocking, because it did not attempt to tell the story of overcoming and normalization. It rather uncovered the body in the perplexing diversity of its sensory practices and ‘messy’ tangibility. Secondly, I will also consider to what extent this aesthetics of the disabled subject actually fit in the larger context of the artistic experiments characteristic of Modernism. Some of the aforementioned authors had clear connections with the leading avant-garde groups of the day. But their writings should also be understood as a self-affirming act of disabled people as to resist their social marginalization, presenting themselves at once as creative individuals and as critical commentators of modern life. Their texts often raised unpleasant ethical questions, by attacking for example the wide-spread belief in the human control of the natural processes of life and death. More in general, my presentation will hopefully help to save a few exceptional writers with disabilities from oblivion, as well as to uncover the crucial role these writers played in the cultural emancipation of the disabled subject.

Piet Devos (Kortrijk, 1983) has a PhD in Modern Romance Literature from the University of Groningen. He himself went blind at the age of five, an experience which triggered his interest in sensory perception. In his PhD thesis, El cuerpo elocuente (Almenara Press, 2015), Piet developed a cultural-historical method for analyzing literary texts through the lens of contemporaneous sensory practices and discourses. From November 2015 on, he will be conducting research for his project on the Modernist aesthetics of disability, while in residence as a postdoctoral fellow at the Centre for Sensory Studies of Concordia University in Montreal. Piet also works as a translator, particularly of French and Latin American avant-garde texts.

Disability History Lecture VII – Prof. Dr. Jane Buckingham

Disabling Disease: Challenging the stigma of leprosy in the colonial South Pacific

Jane Buckingham is Senior Lecturer in History at University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand.

The lecture will take place on Monday March 9th 2015 from 14 o’clock until 16 o’clock and is co-organized by GRIP.

Venue: Provinciehuis Vlaams-Brabant – Provincieplein 1, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium

Leprosy disables both in the material sense of damaging the limbs, sight and speech of those affected and in the social sense of stimulating the disability of stigmatisation. In colonial contexts, dynamics of race and power add further layers of subordination to people already marginalised by the disease of leprosy and its physical manifestation. This lecture focuses on images of leprosy affected people in twentieth century British colonial Fiji and the role of such representations in educating medical specialists, colonial government officials and the wider public. It draws particularly on the history of the Central Leper’s Hospital opened in 1911 on the Fijian island of Makogai as an isolation and treatment centre for leprosy affected people from the British colonial South Pacific. Until its closure in 1969 images from Makogai including photo albums kept by the nursing sisters from the Missionary Sisters of the Society of Mary, photographs printed in the New Zealand and Fijian Press and images promoted by the New Zealand based charity, the Lepers’ Trust Board, played a major role in the visual construction of the ‘leper’ in Fiji and New Zealand. These images represented the leprosy affected person as a focus of medical attention, charitable investment and an object of pity and horror. But images from Makogai also attest to deliberate processes of intervention and normalisation. Images played a formal and informal educative role in demonstrating medical procedures and in reducing the physical and social disability associated with leprosy by showing the patients on Makogai engaged in everyday activities. Photographs were deployed not only to mark out the leprosy affected as separate but to disable the disease of leprosy by recording the effects of strategies of normalisation not only on the leprous body but on the social and daily life of leprosy affected people.